Columbus, The Indians, and Human Progress Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log: They willingly traded everything they owned
Strategic background[ edit ] Shortly after the start of the Second Punic War, Hannibal crossed into Italy by traversing the Pyrenees and the Alps during the summer and early autumn of BC.
These tactics proved unpopular with the Romans who, as they recovered from the shock of Hannibal's victories, began to question the wisdom of the Fabian strategywhich had given the Carthaginian army a chance to regroup.
It was feared that, if Hannibal continued plundering Italy unopposed, Rome's allies might defect to the Carthaginian side for self-preservation.
The Senate determined to bring eight legions into the field, which had never been done at Rome before, each legion consisting of five thousand men besides allies. Most of their wars are decided by one consul and two legions, with their quota of allies; and they rarely employ all four at one time and on one service.
But on this occasion, so great was the alarm and terror of what would happen, they resolved to bring not only four but eight legions into the field. Roman command[ edit ] Consuls were each assigned two of the four legions to command, rarely employing all four legions at once to the same assignment.
However, the Senate feared a real threat and not only deployed all four legions to the field but all eight, including allies. The traditional account puts Varro in command on the day of the battle, and much of the blame for the defeat has been laid on his shoulders.
While the Romans were approaching Cannae, some of Hannibal's light infantry and cavalry ambushed them. Paullus, however, was opposed to the engagement as it was taking shape.
Unlike Varro, he was prudent and cautious, and he believed it was foolish to fight on open ground, despite the Romans' numerical strength.
This was especially true since Hannibal held the advantage in cavalry both in quality and quantity. During the second day August 1 Hannibal, aware that Varro would be in command the following day, left his camp and offered battle, but Paullus refused. Hannibal coolly replied, "There is one thing, Gisgo, yet more astonishing, which you take no notice of".
He then explained, "In all those great numbers before us, there is not one man called Gisgo", provoking laughter that spread through the Carthaginian ranks. However, Macrobiusciting the Roman annalist Quintus Claudius Quadrigariusstates the battle was fought ante diem iiii nones Sextilisor 2 August.
A review of the evidence led P. They should be treated with caution, especially those for the Carthaginian side.
Along with the core of an estimated 8, Libyansthere were 8, Iberians16, Gauls 8, were left at camp the day of battle and around 5, Gaetulian infantry. Hannibal's cavalry also came from diverse backgrounds.
Finally, Hannibal had around 8, skirmishers consisting of Balearic slingers and mixed-nationality spearmen. The uniting factor for the Carthaginian army was the personal tie each group had with Hannibal.
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The Iberians fought with swords suited for cutting and thrusting, as well as javelins and various types of spears. The Balearic slingers, who were famous for their accuracy, carried short, medium and long slings used to cast stones or bullets.
They may have carried a small shield or simple leather pelt on their arms, but this is uncertain. Hannibal himself was wearing musculata armor and carried a falcata as well. Duncan Head has argued in favor of short stabbing spears.
It is unclear whether he meant only shields and armor or offensive weapons as well,  though a general reading suggests he meant the whole panoply of arms and armor, and even tactical organization.
Apart from his description of the battle itself, when later discussing the subject of the Roman legion versus the Greek phalanxPolybius says that ". The Romans followed this convention fairly closely, but chose extra depth rather than breadth for the infantry in hopes of breaking quickly through the center of Hannibal's line.
As Polybius wrote, "the maniples were nearer each other, or the intervals were decreased. The typical style of ancient warfare was to continuously pour infantry into the center and attempt to overpower the enemy. Hannibal understood that the Romans fought their battles like this, and he took his outnumbered army and strategically placed them around the enemy to win a tactical victory.
Hasdrubal led the Iberian and Gallic cavalry on the left south near the river Aufidus of the Carthaginian army. Hasdrubal was given 6,—7, cavalry, and Hanno had 3,—4, Numidians on the right.
Not only would the morning sun shine low into the Romans' eyes, but the southeasterly winds would blow sand and dust into their faces as they approached the battlefield.
Battle[ edit ] As the armies advanced on one another, Hannibal gradually extended the center of his line, as Polybius described: The wind from the east blew dust in the Romans' faces and obscured their vision.
While the wind was not a major factor, the dust that both armies created would have been potentially debilitating to sight. The dust, however, was not the only psychological factor involved in battle. Because of the somewhat distant battle location, both sides were forced to fight on little sleep.
Another Roman disadvantage was thirst caused by Hannibal's attack on the Roman encampment during the previous day. Furthermore, the massive number of troops would have led to an overwhelming amount of background noise.
All of these psychological factors made battle especially difficult for the infantrymen.An ancient Roman fable imagines a cinaedus, well-known for his brazen effeminacy, fighting heroically. The story raises concerns over gender identity in the military -- much like those seen today.
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Romulus (/ ˈ r ɒ m j ə l ə s /) was the legendary founder and first king of kaja-net.coms traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries. Prelude to War. Nobody ever commended George Patton for his tact, but he was one of the best "motivational speakers" of his day.
The hapless Axis soldiers who found themselves in Sicily in the hot Summer of had only a vague idea of what awaited them, and it was far worse than what anybody - even Patton - could put into words. Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat.
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