Many societies, including our own, reward martial success or skill at arms. In The Purpose of Intervention, Martha Finnemore uses one type of force, military intervention, as a window onto the shifting character of international society. She examines the changes, over the past years, about why countries intervene militarily, as well as in the ways they have intervened.
Origins[ edit ] The beginnings of organized international humanitarian aid can be traced to the late 19th century. The most well known origin story of formalized humanitarian aid is that of Henri Dunanta Swiss business man and social activist, who upon seeing the sheer destruction and inhumane abandonment of wounded soldiers from the Battle of Solferino in Junecancelled his plans and began a relief response.
To start, Dunant was able to profoundly stir the emotions of his readers by bringing the battle and suffering into their homes, equipping them to understand the current barbaric state of war and treatment of soldiers after they were injured or killed; in of themselves these accounts altered the course of history.
The significance only grew with time in the revision and adaptation of the Geneva Convention inand ; additionally supplementary treaties granted protection to hospital ships, prisoners of war and most importantly to civilians in wartime. As many as 10 million people may have died in the famine.
From the Illustrated London News British missionary Timothy Richard first called international attention to the famine in Shandong in the summer of and appealed to the foreign community in Shanghai for money to help the victims.
The Shandong Famine Relief Committee was soon established with the participation of diplomats, businessmen, and Protestant and Roman Catholic missionaries.
Although the authorities have been criticized for their laissez-faire attitude during the famine, relief measures were introduced towards the end. It was only in the s, that global news coverage and celebrity endorsement were mobilized to galvanize large-scale government-led famine and other forms of relief in response to disasters around the world.
The —85 famine in Ethiopia caused upwards of 1 million deaths and was documented by a BBC news crew, with Michael Buerk describing "a biblical famine in the 20th Century" and "the closest thing to hell on Earth".
Some of the proceeds also went to the famine hit areas of Eritrea. An initiative of United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moonthe World Humanitarian Summit included participants from governments, civil society organizations, private organizations, and groups affected by humanitarian need.
Issues that were discussed included: Funding[ edit ] Aid is funded by donations from individuals, corporations, governments and other organizations. The funding and delivery of humanitarian aid is increasingly international, making it much faster, more responsive, and more effective in coping to major emergencies affecting large numbers of people e.
The need for aid is ever-increasing and has long outstripped the financial resources available. There have been accounts of humanitarian aid being not only inefficacious, but actually fueling conflicts in the recipient countries.
Aid can be seized by armed groups, and even if it does reach the intended recipients, "it is difficult to exclude local members of local militia group from being direct recipients if they are also malnourished and qualify to receive aid.
Nevertheless, research on Iraq shows that "small-scale [projects], local aid spending.Here we consider very briefly only two further issues that have widespread current interest in the global justice literature: Humanitarian Intervention and Terrorism. See the entry on terrorism for an extended analysis of such questions.
ICISS also requires Right Authority, meaning there is no better or more appropriate body than the United Nations Security Council to authorize military intervention for human protection purposes.
Founded in , the United Nations strives “to provide peace, security, and justice.” One way it tries to achieve this end is through humanitarian intervention, meaning the “post hoc rationalization for uses of force otherwise difficult to reconcile with international law.”.
In particular, the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs appears to have been modified, thereby legitimizing UN/Great Power intervention for humanitarian purposes in conflicts of an essentially domestic nature (Harris, ).
Armed Humanitarian Intervention Humanitarian intervention is a use of military force to address extraordinary suffering of people, such as genocide or similar, large-scale violation of basic of human rights, where people’s suffering results from their own government’s actions or failures to act.
intervention for humanitarian purposes would amount to an abdica- tion by the international community of its true responsibilities: pre- venting conflict and promoting the basic values expressed in interna-.