The original intent of the Animal Welfare Act was to regulate the use and care of animals in a laboratory setting on a federal level.
History[ edit ] Worldwide, the first law to regulate animal experimentation was Cruelty to Animals Actpassed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It established a central governing body that reviewed and approved all animal use in research. After that, numerous countries in Europe adopted regulations regarding research with animals.
The piece detailed the story of Pepper the Dalmatiana dog that disappeared from the yard of the Lakavage family home in Pennsylvania. It was later discovered that Pepper had been stolen by "dog-nappers," was bought by a Bronx hospital, and had died during an experimental surgical procedure.
A hearing was held on September 30,and similar legislation was sponsored in the Senate. As a result of these articles, the public lobbied Congress to pass a Federal law that would institute animal housing and care standards.
Marine mammals as a class whalesporpoisessealsand polar bearsfor the most part, found protection under the passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act Public Law ofwhich prevented extinction or depletion from indiscriminate taking, including hunting, harassment, capture, and killing permitted takings, including for subsistence and research purposes, must be accomplished humanely, with "the least degree of pain and suffering practicable to the animal".
Endangered and threatened species were also protected with the passage in of the Endangered Species Act Public Lawwhich made illegal the purchase, sale, or transportation in interstate or foreign commerce any species found to be endangered, and also closely regulated commerce in any species threatened with extinction.
Inthe Act was amended Pub. Fines were increased for those interfering with an investigation of an experimentation facility. Those found guilty of assaulting or killing Federal inspectors responsible for such tasks also faced additional sentencing.
The Act was further amended in Pub. Animals were to be kept in adequately-sized traveling accommodations, and to be kept from fighting amongst one another.
The definition of animal was broadened to rid the law of the possible interpretation that dogs used for hunting, security, and breeding were not included in its protection.
Under this law, it was not permitted for a single animal to be used in more than one major operative experiment, from which it was also allowed adequate time to recover as guided by a veterinarian with proper training.
This amendment directed new minimum standards for the handling, housing, sanitation, feeding and other care practices. The psychological well-being of the animals was now taken into consideration as it never had been before.
One provision that stood out at this time was the requirement for the exercise of dogs and psychological well being of primates.
The law also requires research facilities to be able to describe painful practices as well as implement practices that minimize pain and stress to the animals. Another requirement made under this law was for each research facility to establish an Institutional Animal Care committee to oversee research proposals and provide oversight of animal experimentation.
This section established a holding period for cats and dogs of not less than 5 days at a holding facility of the dealer, so that the animal could be adopted or recovered by their original owner before it is sold. The provision applies to operated pounds, research facilities, or private organizations.
Section 2 of the Animal Welfare Act 7 U. Additionally, this law expanded the regulation of animal fightingmaking it a misdemeanor to ship, exhibit, or sponsor birds for fighting purposes. Its purpose was to strengthen prohibitions against animal fighting, and under the provisions of the AWA it made animal fighting a felony with punishment of up to 3 years in prison under Title 18 of the U.
S Code Crimes and Criminal Procedure. The act also made it a felony to trade, have knives, gaffs or other objects that aided in use of animal fighting. Also, these provisions were designed to close the loopholes from the amendments. It added more prohibitions to training, possessing and advertising animals or sharp objects for use in animal fighting.
The penalties for these crimes were raised to 3—5 years imprisonment.SUBCHAPTER I—SHORT TITLE § Short title. This chapter may be cited as the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
(June 25, , ch. , §1, 52 Stat. )Effective Date; Postponement in Certain Cases. USDA Animal Care, a unit within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, administers the Animal Welfare Act (AWA).
This federal law establishes requirements concerning the transportation, sale, and handling of certain animals and includes restrictions on the importation of live dogs for purposes of resale, prohibitions on animal fighting ventures, and provisions intended to prevent the theft of personal pets.
Summary: This is the primary piece of animal welfare legislation in Germany. It enforces the utilitarian principle that there must be good reason for one to cause an animal harm and identifies that it is the responsibility of human beings to protect the lives and well-being of their fellow creatures.
Farm Animals Need Our Help.
In polling, 94% of Americans agree that animals raised for food deserve to live free from abuse and cruelty. Yet the majority of the nearly 10 billion farm animals raised each year in the U.S.
suffer in conditions that consumers would not accept if they could see them. A special message to federal, provincial and territorial government officials involved in comparative welfare research: Canadian Social Research Links is a one-person show.
The Animal Welfare Act was signed into law in It is the only Federal law in the United States that regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers.