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Sultan Mahmud II initiated a number of sweeping reforms in order to strengthen the empire by centralizing administrative control and breaking the power of local provincial governors and the janissaries.
He also supported reforms to Westernize the education system and established military and engineering schools. Although Mahmud II wanted mandatory elementary education, the Ottoman government lacked the financial wherewithal and personnel to make it a reality. Mustafa Reshid, who served in many official positions, Ottoman history essay grand vizier, helped to implement these reforms.
Ali Pasha was the son of a shopkeeper and worked his way up in government service to the position of grand vizier. Fuad Pasha came from a wealthy family; fluent in French, he negotiated with a number of foreign powers. He often served as foreign minister when Ali Pasha was vizier, and when Fuad Pasha was vizier, Ali Pasha often served as foreign minister.
As part of the price for their support of the empire in its struggles against Russia, the European powers pushed the Sultan to institute sweeping reforms that often favored minorities within the empire, particularly Christians, as well as European financial interests. The Hatti-Sherif Gulhane, the Imperial Rescript of the Rose Chamber, in declared the security of life and honor of Ottoman citizens, provided for tax reforms and the end of tax farming and abuses.
It also mandated orderly army recruitment, fair trials with the creation of a council of justice, and equality of religious practices.
The rescript ended the extra tax levied on religious minorities and their exemption from military service.
It expanded on the earlier reforms and stressed that all Ottoman subjects regardless of religion were to be treated equally. Some elected local assemblies, with advisory functions, were created. Proposed new laws were debated by the Tanzimat Council and approved by the Council of Ministers.
The Ottoman Land Law of aimed to increase agricultural production but had some unforeseen social and economic results.
The law forced the registration of land, but many fellaheen peasants were traditionally reluctant to register anything from land to births for fear of government taxation and conscription of their sons into the Ottoman military.
The educated, urban class, who had the disposable income to bribe their way out of heavy taxation and to pay for their sons to avoid the military, took advantage of the weakness of the peasantry to gain title to vast tracts of land, thereby creating a new landed gentry of often absentee land owners.
Many peasants lost their traditional land holdings and were forced to become tenant farmers. This resulted in the further impoverishment of the peasantry in many parts of the empire, particularly in greater Syria.
A civil law code Mecelle was put in place in and expanded in The new code, modeled on European legal systems, was largely formulated by Ahmed Cevdet Pasha.
Under the new legal system, religious law was separated from civil law.Mehmed I came to the Ottoman Turkish throne at perhaps the most desperate time in the dynasty’s history.
Up until the reign of his father, Bayezid I, the Ottoman rise to power had been meteoric. Apr 03, · The goal is to prove with the support of facts that the European countries brought the Ottoman Empire to failure.
The Ottoman Empire was the one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history, moved and sustained by Islam and Islamic institutions. The Decline Of The Ottoman Empire History Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. A Brief History of Turkey Essay - Turkey was for years part of the Ottoman Empire. In shortly after World War one allied forces occupied Turkey.
Custom Ottoman Empire Essay Geo-strategic policies of the European Great powers were led by geographical factors, which played a critical role in political and military activities. The geographical factors in the region enabled the Great Powers to unite and work together politically. Dec 10, · The Ottoman Empire Essay The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest, richest and longest Turkish Muslim empires in history.
With Constantinople as its capital city, it became the center of trade between the eastern and western world.