Above add to the debate of the complex relationship between health outcomes, gender and social class. Previous studies have shown that causes of death differ in their relationship to social class. They found in their European study using data from a decade a clear mortality gradient among employees for the majority of causes; from low relative risk of death among higher managerial and professional occupations to relatively high risks for the unskilled working class. Eur J Public Health 18 5:
Rather than referring to anatomy, gender refers to a set of qualities and behaviours expected from a female or male based on their society. Gender roles are learned and can be affected by factors such as education or economics.
These social variations can be assessed and critically explained within sociological approaches to health inequalities. The natural approach argues that biological factors affect each genders health issues.
Women face a greater number of unavoidable health risks due to their reproductive role. In Great Britain, in the number of years spent in poor health was In female life expectancy stood at This can result in women and men having different access to life choices and chances, including economic, educational attainment and health.
Both genders health and health needs are different because of differences in their bodies, but also because in how each gender lives, works and plays. This being the inherit problem with the natural approach. Focusing entirely on the biology ignores cultural influences and gender socialization on the whole.
A statistic that support this is in some Indian subcontinents female life expectancy is actually lower London Health Observatory, Cultural or behaviour analysis accepts that the gender differentials are largely valid; explaining these differences by highlighting the different norms and behaviours of males and females in each society.
Male life expectancy is generally lower than that of females, as shown above. This is due to higher levels of risk taking which is supported by studies by the Harvard series Harvard. A man is far more likely to engage in competitive sports or pursue dangerous leisure activities and they also drink and smoke more although this gap is closing Office for National Statistics, This approach could be looked at as overly simplistic by focusing only on behaviour.
There is evidence that risky activities are unevenly distributed between not only gender, but social class.
Males are more likely to work in physically demanding jobs or hazardous occupations Taylor, et al. The housewife carries with it little prestige, coupled with social isolation. They can be under-appreciated, with undetermined working hours. Figures show that women are more prone to stress and related diseases Office of National Statistics, The pressure is increased if a female is in paid employment.
This approach relies too heavily on the passive nature of people; Are positions in life truly that effective at determining our health? Poverty is demonstrably bad for health, yet material explanations are not sufficient on their own to explain differences in health.
While life expectancy is lower in poorer less developed countries, some diseases are more prevalent in the richer west. A social constructionist would take the view that differences in disease by gender exist, but that statistics showing these figures are not valid.
In Sally Macintyre pointed out that the gradient differences in health and gender, to some extent are affected by how health issues are measured Kronenfeld, Women are far more likely to go see the doctor; Men however put their bodies under less medical scrutiny, are less vocal and sometimes less educated about their bodily functions.The aim of this essay is to compare and contrast different sociological perspectives of health and illness.
HEALTH INEQUALITIES it is wise to say that although there are many theories and explanations for health inequalities, the reasons provided by all of them are quite similar. Health inequalities must be addressed in the interests of fairness and social justice.
There exists a social gradient in health: health improves as social status goes up. Social inequalities result in health inequalities; therefore to reduce health inequalities we must consider all the social determinants of health.
Critically Evaluate Sociological Explanations For Inequalities In Health Critically evaluate Durkheim’s sociological approach to the analysis of suicide Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist, is often acclaimed as being one of the key pioneers of the academic discipline, sociology.
The sociology of health and illness covers sociological pathology (causes of disease and illness), reasons for seeking particular types of medical aid, and patient compliance or noncompliance with medical regimes.
but research has also proved that there is indeed a positive correlation between socioeconomic inequalities and illness.
1 Gender inequalities in health: research at the crossroads 1 Ellen Annandale and Kate Hunt is currently writing Feminist Theory and the Sociology of Health and Illness (forthcoming). She is the author of The Sociology of Health and Medicine Mick Carpenter also stresses the need for a critical.
'Evaluate the four sociological explanations for health inequalities in terms of explaining the patterns and trends of health and illness in three different social groups.' I .