A Practice Oriented Approach.
Each partner in a domestic violence reduction collaborative brings a unique perspective and body of knowledge.
It is important for members of domestic violence collaborations to operate with precise and accurate information about what does and does not work and about the dimensions of the problem in your community.
Do not assume that other professional groups participating in the collaborative have the most up-to-date knowledge about the problem or are following prescribed protocols. Tailoring the police response on the basis of offender and victim risk.
Some researchers advocate a graded response to domestic violence. They view batterers along a continuum—some are easily dissuaded from rebattering, others require increased actions—and a graded or tiered approach to control offender behavior can be effective.
For instance, we know that a percentage of batterers is deterred from rebattering simply by having the police called on them, so encouraging reporting is essential; others may be deterred with the additional application of a restraining order.
More is required to keep other batterers from rebattering, which suggests a need to refine assessments about who these batterers are. Graded approaches to both victim and offender can be effective ways to reduce revictimization.
British researchers conducted several evaluations and found that significant reductions in repeat victimization are achievable. The victim and the offender must know about the actions police have and will take in relation to each other.
Graded approaches must be applied quickly because the highest risk period for further assault is within the first four weeks of the last assault. Each of the three levels to which a victim is assigned requires some follow-up. Click on a particular technique to view its description. Tailoring police responses to particular offenders based on the seriousness and frequency of their offenses has been successfully applied in the context of conventional crime and may be as useful for dealing with domestic batterers.
See Kennedy for a discussion of the application of the approach to domestic violence. Some police agencies participate in domestic violence awareness campaigns and school programming, such as classroom instruction to teens about dating violence and ways to handle conflict.
Domestic violence prevention messages may target the general population or specific populations. For example, campaigns may be designed to encourage victim reporting, deter potential offenders, or raise the consciousness of potential witnesses of abuse neighbors, friends, relatives.
As a rule, prevention is more likely to work if highly targeted. General campaigns are not typically effective. Highly targeted campaigns that focus on a specific target group or geographic area can have some impact. Prevention efforts targeting potential victims should focus on those at higher risk, such as young women ages 16 to 24, as they experience the highest rates of intimate violence.
Special efforts should be made to reach the poorest women in this age group as they are at an even higher risk. In addition, some recent immigrant communities, depending on the laws and privileges in the home country, may show a high level of domestic abuse, particularly if there is a lack of familiarity with assault laws in the adopted country.
Police and other members of a domestic violence reduction collaborative should encourage people to call the police if they are victims of, witnesses to, or know a victim of domestic violence.
Prevention and education efforts should include this as a core message. A study of more than 2, domestic violence victims concluded that calling the police had a strong deterrent effect on revictimization, even when the police did not make an arrest, when the offender had a prior history of violence against the victim, and when the assault was sexual.
Calling the police was beneficial even when the violence was severe. In addition, offender retaliation did not appear to be more likely even when a victim rather than a third party called police.
Encouraging other professionals to screen for domestic violence victimization and make appropriate referrals.
The American Medical Association adopted domestic violence screening and referral guidelines for medical practitioners. In spite of these professional recommendations, most physicians are reluctant to routinely screen women for domestic violence, citing a lack of training in how to conduct screenings and insufficient knowledge of appropriate responses and referrals when a patient discloses domestic violence.
Typical services include a domestic violence hotline, temporary housing, information and referrals to other social services, safety planning, victim advocacy for emergency benefits or at court proceedings, and referrals for legal services.
There are currently more than 2, shelters in the United States. Shelters often rely on volunteers and a few paid personnel to provide round-the-clock assistance to battered women and their families. Little is known about the number of repeat victims served annually, the length of average stays, or the effectiveness of shelter services in preventing subsequent violence.
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Although there are confidentiality issues to resolve or respect, police should seek to exchange information with domestic violence victim service providers as much as possible to learn more about the domestic violence victim population, some of whom do not seek out police assistance.
Recently emerging are family justice centers, which house domestic violence victim services in one location to increase victim survival, independence, and recovery. Formerly, victim services were scattered in different places, sometimes at opposite ends of cities.
If victims followed up with these fragmented services, they too often experienced the frustration of retelling the story of violence to every individual provider. Assessing the threat of repeat victimization. You may need to gather records from other jurisdictions where the victim or offender lived.
Keep in mind that for a variety of social and psychological reasons, victims may be reluctant to reveal the extent of the battering, particularly to police.
A study of one initiative in which a doctor and a nurse or paramedic accompanied police on domestic violence calls found victims revealing much more about the extent to which their partner battered them than police typically elicit, suggesting that victims may feel more comfortable reporting repeat victimization to medical professionals.The benefits of mindfulness meditation in the workplace, for students or in primary schools are numerous, both for the brain and body.
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