There are many different educational philosophies throughout the world, all of which are designed to promote academic and social growth in children. Some of the most child-centered educational philosophies have their origins in the theories of child development specialists and psychologists who believe that young children learn best through play and self-discovery. These four methods all approach early learning from a developmental perspective, and stress the importance of play and self-directed exploration.
Theodicy the study of God. Cosmology the study of the World.
Psychology the study of Man. Politics Economics Wolff broke the ties binding the particular sciences to philosophy, and placed them by themselves; in his view philosophy must remain purely rational.
It is easy to see that the members of Wolff's scheme are found in the Aristotelean classification, wherein theodicy is a chapter of metaphysics and psychology a chapter of physics.
In contemporary philosophy The impulse received by philosophy during the last half-century gave rise to new philosophical sciencesin the sense that various branches have been detached from the main stems. In psychology this phenomenon has been remarkable: Other branches which have formed themselves into new psychological sciences are: An important section of logic called also noetic, or canonic is tending to sever itself from the main body, viz.
On moral philosophy, in the wide sense, have been grafted the philosophy of lawthe philosophy of societyor social philosophy which is much the same as sociologyand the philosophies of religion and of history. The principal systematic solutions From what has been said above it is evident that philosophy is beset by a great number of questions.
It would not be possible here to enumerate all those questions, much less to detail the divers solutions which have been given to them. The solution of a philosophic question is called a philosophic doctrine or theory. It is not an incoherent assemblage or an encyclopedic amalgamation of such solutions; it is dominated by an organic unity.
Only those philosophic systems which are constructed conformably with the exigencies of organic unity are really powerful: So that one or several theories do not constitute a system; but some theories, i.
The scope of this section is to indicate some of these theories. Monism, or Pantheism, and Pluralism, Individualism, or Theism Are there many beings distinct in their reality, with one Supreme Being, God at the summit of the hierarchy; or is there but one reality monas, hence monismone All-God pan-theos of whom each individual is but a member or fragment Substantialistic Pantheismor else a force, or energy Dynamic Pantheism?
Here we have an important question of metaphysics the solution of which reacts upon all other domains of philosophy. Monism is a fascinating explanation of the real, but it only postpones the difficulties which it imagines itself to be solving e. Objectivism and Subjectivism Does being, whether one or many, possess its own lifeindependent of our mindso that to be known by us is only accident to being, as in the objective system of metaphysics e.
Aristotlethe ScholasticsSpinoza? Or is being no other reality than the mental and subjective presence which it acquires in our representation of it as in the Subjective system e.
Subjectivism cannot explain the passivity of our mental representations, which we do not draw out of ourselves, and which therefore oblige us to infer the reality of a non-ego. Substantialism and Phenomenism Is all reality a flux of phenomena Heraclitus, Berkeley, Hume, Taineor does the manifestation appear upon a basis, or substancewhich manifests itself, and does the phenomenon demand a noumenon the Scholastics?
Without an underlying substancewhich we only know through the medium of the phenomenon, certain realities, as walking, talking, are inexplicable, and such facts as memory become absurd.
Mechanism and Dynamism Pure and Modified Natural bodies are considered by some to be aggregations of homogeneous particles of matter atoms receiving a movement which is extrinsic to them, so that these bodies differ only in the number and arrangement of their atoms the Atomismor Mechanismof Democritus, Descartesand Hobbes.
Others reduce them to specific, unextended, immaterial forces, of which extension is only the superficial manifestation Leibniz.
Between the two is Modified Dynamism Aristotlewhich distinguishes in bodies an immanent specific principle form and an indeterminate element matter which is the source of limitation and extension.
This theory accounts for the specific characters of the entities in question as well as for the reality of their extension in space. Materialism, Agnosticism, and Spiritualism That everything real is material, that whatever might be immaterial would be unreal, such is the cardinal doctrine of Materialism the StoicsHobbes, De Lamettrie.
Contemporary Materialism is less outspoken: Spiritualism teaches that incorporeal, or immaterial, beings exist or that they are possible Plato, AristotleSt. Augustinethe ScholasticsDescartesLeibniz.
Some have even asserted that only spirits exist: Berkeley, Fichte, and Hegel are exaggerated Spiritualists.This article explains the four major foundations of curriculum and their importance in education.
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About Charlotte Mason Who was Charlotte Mason and what is her method of homeschooling? Charlotte Mason lived in England in the 's. [see photos of the Ambleside area where she lived and worked at this link.] Orphaned at age 16 and never married, she devoted her life to children and their education.
One can learn a lot about an institution’s or individual’s philosophy of education based on the which of the four elements is either given priority or is the sole focus of the program. Detailed article on the history of the 'love of wisdom'.
Educational Philosophies Definitions and Comparison Chart.
know, there are four major educational philosophies, each related to one or more of the general or world philosophies just discussed. These educational philosophical approaches are currently The .